Why emigrate to the United States
-USA is a country made up of 50 states and its territory is very wide. Therefore, there are a variety of climates and landscapes that you can choose according to your tastes and economic possibilities.
-USA It is the country that hosts more immigrants worldwide. Therefore, by living in the United States, you will have contact with many cultures and traditions.
The payment of tax is a serious issue, usually they are high figures and it is mandatory even for those who are residents or temporary workers.
Types of visa in the United States
The cornerstone of the United States immigration system is a very rigid set of visa categories, with specific requirements attached to each description. It is vital to choose the type of visa that most closely resembles the personal profile of the interested party, otherwise, the visa or residence application will be rejected.
The United States security regulations require foreign visitors to hand over their fingerprints and allow their photographs to be taken upon arrival at the country’s airports. The images are filed electronically so that the authorities can review the identity documents in more detail.
The visa system is divided into two large groups: permanent (Green Card) and temporary.
Temporary residence or nonimmigrant visas
This large group of visas applies to anyone who wants to enter and remain in the United States temporarily. This category includes many types of visa that vary in the privileges granted according to the purpose for which they are delivered: vacations, business, studies or work. They are identified with a letter, a number and a name.
Among the most used nonimmigrant visas are those of Visitor B-2, Investors E-2, student F-1 and specialized worker H-1B. When the government grants one of these temporary permits, it is only authorized to carry out the specific activity referred to by the visa. If immigration agents suspect that the visa holder intends to stay longer than allowed, he can proceed to remove it and prohibit entry into the country.
Many of these temporary visas are granted relatively quickly, getting approval in less than a week. Generally, the United States Embassy requires that for most of the requests the interested party make an appointment and present himself at the headquarters for processing.
Although the rejections are very high, they are a consequence of not providing the necessary documentation, problems filling out the forms, or lying on the profile and academic data of the applicant. Depending on the type of temporary visa requested, the processes can be more complicated.
Although this category includes many different types of visa, they all coincide in a common feature: they are temporary. Seeing the complete list, it is appreciated that some have a very limited use to specific groups of people, while others apply to large majorities. Below is the complete list to view all the options that exist:
• Diplomats and government officials
- A-1 Diplomats: For use by ambassadors or diplomatic career professionals and their immediate family members.
- A-2 Government officials: For use by other government officials or workers and their immediate family members.
- A-3 Support staff of ambassadors and government officials: Applies to all support or service personnel (and their immediate family members) of diplomatic personnel or governments.
- • Visitors
- In order to put more control over the permanence of those who enter as visitors, the US Citizen & Immigration Services (USCIS) of the United States has proposed the elimination of the current minimum period of six months of stay for B visas issued to tourists and replaces it for a reasonable period of time to complete the purpose of the visit. When visitor visa holders request entry to the United States they must explain to the INS officer at the port of entry, the nature of their trip, to determine the appropriate period of permanence. Officials will do everything possible to determine a fair period, however, when the necessary time cannot be determined, a maximum period of 30 days will be granted.
B-1 Business visitor: For the use of merchants or representatives of companies that travel to conduct business transactions, sales, attend meetings or conferences, or who are looking for investments. The visa officer at the port of entry will establish the period of permanence.
B-2 Tourist visitor: Applies to those who enter the country exclusively for vacations or pleasure trips. It does not allow work or study. According to recent modifications, it was reduced to a maximum of one month (30 days) per stay. However, these visas are issued for a period of several years and after the issuance of the first one, they can be renewed with relative ease. B-2 is also granted to those who travel for medical treatment.
This visa is granted without number restrictions and is approved and delivered on the same day, in most cases. The interested party must request it personally (the first time), check that they have a home, family and economic ties that ensure they will return to their country. You must have your passport up to date, a 4 × 4 cms photo. Recent, demonstration of marital status, make a bank deposit for US $ 100 and fill out the visa application form. Working letters and bank statements may be requested.
You must call in advance and request an appointment through the telephone information service of the United States embassy in each country.
For some countries, the so-called “Visa Waiver Program” applies, which allows nationals of certain countries (who do not have a history of illegal immigration) to enter the United States as a visitor, without processing the corresponding visa. The following 28 countries are part of this program: Andorra, Germany, Austria, Australia, Belgium, Brunei, Denmark, Slovenia, Spain, Finland, France, Great Britain, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Monaco, Netherlands , New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, San Marino, Singapore, Sweden and Switzerland. This visa may be a valid option for those who have dual citizenship with any of these countries.
Argentina and Uruguay were removed from this list. Nationals of these countries must now process their visitor’s visa (B1 or B2) before the corresponding consular authorities.
All the details on how to get the United States visitor visa here >>
• In transit
C-1 Transit: Applies to foreigners who will touch a port of entry in the United States, to immediately continue their trip to another country.
D-1 Crew of aircraft or ships: Pilots, flight attendants, surcharges and sailors who need to remain temporarily in the United States to depart, in a short time, on the same plane or ship.
• Business and investment
E-1 Trade agreements: For personnel of companies that will develop import and export trade between the United States and the country with which there is a commercial agreement.
E-2 Investment treaties: For personnel that will develop significant investments in the United States by a company in the country with which there is a commercial agreement.
F-1 Academic or language students: For those who wish to conduct formal studies at a university, institute of higher education or language school.
F-2 Direct relatives of F-1 visa holders: For those who accompany the student during the course of their academic program.
M-1 Vocational or non-academic students, other than language students.
M-2 Direct family of M-1 visa holder.
All the details of the visas that apply to study are described in the Study in the United States chapter.
• Workers from governments or international organizations
G-1 Government representatives who will work in international organizations: Applies to the main government representative who will join an international organization based in the United States, including members of its staff and their direct family.
G-2 Other government workers who will work in international organizations: Accredited representatives of governments and their families, who will be incorporated into the work of an international organization.
G-3 Representatives of governments that do not belong to international organizations: It also applies to their direct relatives.
G-4 Officials of international organizations and their direct relatives.
G-5 Support or service personnel (and their direct family members) of all G visa holders.
• Temporary employees
H-1B Worker with specialized knowledge: For people who are going to work in highly specialized occupations. The applicant must have at least a university degree or its equivalent in work experience. They must have an employer in the United States to make the request. It also applies to “fashion top-models” or professional catwalk models. It is one of the most popular visas of the United States immigration system, as US companies use the H-1B program to employ foreign workers in occupations that require specialized knowledge (scientists, engineers and Information Technology professionals, among others). ).
H-2A Temporary farm workers: traveling to the United States to fill positions in which the Department of Agriculture has determined that they have not been filled by national workers.
H-2B Various types of temporary workers: traveling to the United States to fill positions in which there is a shortage of skilled national workers.
H-3 Temporary interns: who will complete a specific training in a US company.
H-4 Direct relatives of H visa holders.
All the details of the visas that apply to work are described in the Temporary Work Visas section.
• I Accredited representatives of the press: traveling to the United States on behalf of a foreign media outlet to work in this specific area. Includes direct family members.
J-1 Exchange visitors traveling to study, work or train as part of an exchange program, officially recognized by a United States Information Agency.
J-2 Direct family of Exchange visitors.
Q-1 Visitors participating in a cultural exchange program.
Q-2 Direct family of Q-1 visa holder.
K-1 Boyfriend or girlfriend of a US citizen who travels to the country with the purpose of getting married.
K-2 Minor or unmarried child of a K-1 visa holder.
• Transferencias entre compañías
- L-1 Personal transferido de compañías, que trabajan en cargos de gerentes, ejecutivos o que poseen una habilidad o competencia especializada.
- L-2 Familiares directos de poseedor de visa L-1
En una reciente modificación de las normas que rigen esta categoría de visa, se permite que el cónyuge de un portador de visa L-1 que posea el correspondiente status de L-2 o acompañante, puede ser autorizado a trabajar en los Estados Unidos, lo cual resulta una gran ventaja.
Aunque las visas L-1 fueron creadas para transferencias entre compañías, representan también una posibilidad para dueños de pequeños negocios quienes deberán patrocinar su propia visa y la de sus empleados.
Sin embargo, al tratarse de una visa de trabajo temporal, la compañía, por pequeña que sea, deberá demostrar que está preparada para asumir retos financieros, que pagará sus impuestos y que es estable económicamente.
• N. Hijos de ciertos inmigrantes especiales.
• Acuerdo OTAN (NATO)
- NATO-1, NATO-2, NATO-3, NATO-4 y NATO-5: Asociados al acuerdo de la OTAN (y sus familiares directos) que viajan a Estados Unidos bajo las previsiones aplicables.
- NATO-6 Miembros de los componentes civiles de la OTAN (y sus familiares directos), que acompañan a las fuerzas militares en misiones autorizadas bajo el acuerdo.
- NATO-7 Personal de apoyo y empleados personales de los poseedores de visas OTAN, y sus familiares directos.
• Artes, ciencias y deportes
- O-1 Personas con habilidades extraordinarias en el área de las ciencias, arte, educación, negocios o deportes.
- O-2 Personal de apoyo esencial para los poseedores de visas O-1.
- O-3 Familiares directos de poseedores de visas O.
- P-1 Deportista o profesional del mundo del espectáculo, que cuente con reconocimientos internacionales. Incluye a su personal de apoyo esencial.
- P-2 Profesionales del mundo del espectáculo que viajan para un programa específico de intercambio, reconocido por el gobierno de Estados Unidos.
- P-3 Artistas y profesionales del espectáculo que viajan a Estados Unidos en grupo, para participar en un espectáculo cultural típico.
- P-4 Familiares directos de los poseedores de visas P.
• Representantes de religiones
- R-1 Religiosos o trabajadores de grupos religiosos reconocidos.
- R-2 Familiares directos de poseedores de visas R-2
• Investigaciones legales
- S-1 Personas cuya declaración es crítica para investigaciones penales. Viajan para ofrecer información a las autoridades y se determina que su presencia en el país es imprescindible para el éxito de la investigación.
- S-2 Personas que poseen información crítica para un juicio. Ofrecerán declaración a las autoridades o a una corte, debido a lo cual su vida podría correr peligro. Son elegibles además, a recibir una compensación por su colaboración en estos casos.
- S-3 Familiares directos de poseedores de visas S.
Residencia permanente, “Green Cards”
La clase de visas permanentes son las conocidas como “Green Cards”, aunque su nombre oficial es tarjetas de registro de extranjeros o “Alien Registration Receipt Cards”. Hace años, estas tarjetas eran de color verde y de allí obtuvieron este nombre coloquial.
Las “Green Cards” son entregadas únicamente a aquellos que se convierten en ciudadanos permanentes y otorgan el derecho de vivir y trabajar por el resto de sus vidas en Estados Unidos. Se requerirá que el portador tenga una residencia permanente en el país (no importa cuántos viajes haga fuera de él), de lo contrario, la tarjeta y sus privilegios será revocada.
Existe un límite reducido de la cantidad de “Green Cards” que se otorgan cada año. Dependiendo de la categoría por la cual se esté optando, el período de espera y aprobación puede demorar significativamente, meses y hasta años, debido a la cuota restringida versus la enorme cantidad de solicitudes.
Aunque existen muchas maneras de obtener una “Green Card”, todas poseen los mismos derechos inalienables para su portador. Se otorgan estas tarjetas de registro por diversos motivos, principalmente para familiares directos de otros residentes, profesionales en áreas de alta demanda en el mercado laboral estadounidense, inversionistas, refugiados o simplemente por el azar de una lotería.